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1.
#26788

Accessibility of AJAX Applications

AJAX is a smorgasbord of web technologies put together to allow dynamic client-server interactions to occur in web applications without requiring pages to reload or refresh. AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. AJAX itself is not a technology--it is a combination of technologies used in a certain way.

WebAIM (2006). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>Ajax

2.
#22971

Accessibility of Online Chat Programs

This article will evaluate the accessibility of three types of popular synchronous communication tools: IRC, Web-based chats and instant messengers.

WebAIM (2003). Articles>Collaboration>Accessibility>Online

3.
#22974

Accessibility of the Internet in Postsecondary Education: Meeting the Challenge

This article explores the many-faceted nuances of the challenge of trying to make Web content accessible in higher education. It includes an analysis of the seriousness of the problems that students face as well as an optimistic vision for the future.

Rowland, Cyndi. WebAIM (2000). Design>Web Design>Accessibility

4.
#22957

An Accessible Method of Hiding HTML Content

Though somewhat rare, there are occasions when the accessibility needs of screen reader users appear to be at odds with the needs of visual users. This kind of conflict occurs when Web developers put form elements inside of a data table matrix, when they want to use images as headings instead of text, and in other situations. Adding extra text helps screen reader users, but can complicate the visual layout, thus reducing understandability. One solution is to use CSS to hide the text from sighted users in a way that is still accessible to screen readers. The details of this technique are discussed, along with the technical reasoning behind it.

Bohman, Paul. WebAIM (2002). Design>Web Design>Accessibility

5.
#22965

Accessible Taxes? A Blind Consumer's Experience with the US Tax System

One of the most common, and least enjoyable, experiences of citizens of the United States is that of filing income tax forms. This year, Sachin Pavithran, who is blind, attempted to complete the forms and file them without assistance from sighted friends. Find out whether he was successful or not.

Bohman, Paul, Shane Anderson and Sachin Pavithran. WebAIM (2004). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>Government

6.
#22997

Accommodating Various Abilities and Disabilities

Training sessions invariably have participants that come from a wide array of backgrounds and have various talents and levels of expertise. Some will be outspoken and others more withdrawn. Some will already have a background in accessible design, while others may have never heard of Web accessibility. Your participants will also have a wide range of technical expertise. You may have die-hard developers that program in text editors or an administrator who doesn't know what HTML stands for. It's important that you gain an understanding of what your training participants' talents and knowledge levels are, and then take advantage of their skills and abilities.

WebAIM (2005). Articles>Education>Accessibility

7.
#22986

Adobe Acrobat Accessibility Techniques

Some sites would hardly exist at all if they took down their PDF files (PDF stands for 'Portable Document Format'). This format is an incredibly useful format for some situations, providing a method to post content on the Web that will print exactly as the author intended it to. Creating PDF files is faster and easier than creating HTML files in many cases. This increases its allure for Web developers.

WebAIM (2004). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>Adobe Acrobat

8.
#22975

The Applicability of the ADA to the Internet

As the Internet has increased in prominence in all sectors of society, interested individuals have begun to question whether or not the Internet should be included in the regulations set forth by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Right now there is no explicit reference to the Internet in any of the language of the act.

Bohman, Paul. WebAIM (2000). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>Policies and Procedures

9.
#32877

Appropriate Use of Alternative Text

Adding alternative text for images is the first principle of web accessibility. It is also one of the most difficult to properly implement. The web is replete with images that have missing, incorrect, or poor alternative text. Like many things in web accessibility, determining appropriate, equivalent, alternative text is often a matter of personal interpretation. Through the use of examples, this article will present our experienced interpretation of appropriate use of alternative text.

WebAIM (2005). Articles>Accessibility>Image Editing>Web Design

10.
#32843

Assessing Assessments: The Inequality of Electronic Testing

Computer and Internet based tests are used for a variety of purposes. From entering education or employment, to improving basic learning, people everywhere are taking electronically formatted tests. With the advancement of testing from traditional paper-based tests to technologically advanced electronic tests, people reap the benefits of easier access to tests, faster response times, and greater reliability and validity of tests. However, persons with disabilities are being left out of the picture and out of many typically-administered tests.

Lyman, Michael, Cyndi Rowland and Paul Bohman. WebAIM (2006). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>Assessment

11.
#22988

Captioning for QuickTime

There are two methods for adding captions in QuickTime. There are advantages and disadvantages to each approach. The first allows you to maintain a single file, making the captioned video easier to distribute. The second approach allows you to easily deliver a captioned and non-captioned version of your movie, but requires an understanding of SMIL (it's not too hard).

WebAIM (2003). Design>Multimedia>Accessibility>Video

12.
#22990

Captioning for RealPlayer

RealPlayer uses SMIL to combine media content with a RealText (.rt) file. The .rt file contains the captions themselves and information about how and when they should appear. The SMIL file is really just a pointer file. It contains information about where and how your captions and media content should display.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Multimedia>Accessibility>Video

13.
#22989

Captioning for Windows Media

Windows Media Player adds captions using Microsoft's Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange (SAMI). SAMI, like SMIL, which is used by Quicktime and RealPlayer, is an XML-based text language. A SAMI file contains the captions and definitions for how and when the captions should display.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Multimedia>Accessibility>Video

14.
#23013

Considering the User Perspective: A Summary of Design Issues

A table which indicates some accomodations web designers may choose to build into accessible websites.

Bohman, Paul. WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility

15.
#32850

Constructing a POUR Website - Putting People at the Center of the Process

Web developers can create Web sites that are possible for people with disabilities to access, but only with great difficulty. The technical standards are important, but they may be insufficient on their own. Developers need to learn when and how to go beyond the technical standards when necessary.

Bohman, Paul. WebAIM (2005). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility

16.
#22958

Creating Accessible Cascading Style Sheets

For years, the only way to format HTML in a visually appealing way was to use tables, even though tables were originally created to display tabular data. As the Web evolved and became more sophisticated, designers wanted to do more than just display text, they wanted to emulate printed documents. They wanted to make an artistic statement. There's nothing wrong with that. In fact, tables can be used for layout without ruining the accessibility of a Web site. Yes, it's ok to use tables for layout. Still, you can take your Web design to a higher level by eliminating tables entirely. The way to do this is through CSS (Cascading Style Sheets).

Bohman, Paul. WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS

17.
#22992

Creating Accessible Flash

Macromedia Flash is a vector-based, interactive animation creation program designed to enable the addition of dynamic characters, scenes, interfaces and motion graphics animations to Web sites. Macromedia Flash materials are created using the Flash authoring program, the most recent version of which is Flash MX.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>Flash

18.
#22959

Creating Accessible Forms

When we talk about the accessibility of forms, we are usually referring about their accessibility to screen readers and the visually impaired. People with other types of disabilities generally are less affected by 'faulty' forms that are missing some of the HTML accessibility features.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>Forms

19.
#22960

Creating Accessible Frames

A frameset is a Web page which defines a collection of at least two other separate Web pages, which are combined in the same visual space. Visual users usually experience framesets as a cohesive entity. They can scan the contents of multiple pages all at once. Those using screen readers cannot quickly scan the contents of multiple pages. All of the content is experienced in a linear fashion, one frame at a time. Frames are not inaccessible to modern screen readers, but they can be disorienting.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility

20.
#22961

Creating Accessible Images

Some people think that graphics are bad for accessibility. The truth is that graphics can be of great benefit to the accessibility of a Web page by providing illustrations, icons, animations, or other visual cues that aid comprehension for sighted individuals. Too often we forget that when we design for people with disabilities, we are not designing only for the blind. We must consider disabilities of all types. Graphics can be especially useful to individuals with certain reading disabilities, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, or cognitive disabilities.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility

21.
#22962

Creating Accessible JavaScript

JavaScript is available on the Web to allow programming type processes that are not allowed with static HTML. In most cases, JavaScript does not overtly affect accessibility. Most browsers and screen readers are capable of accessing JavaScript items. You should, however, teach that many people cannot or choose not to allow JavaScript within their Web browsers or assistive technologies. Important content or functionality should not rely on JavaScript alone. JavaScript should usually be used to supplement content.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>DHTML

22.
#22956

Creating Accessible Tables

In practice, tables are perhaps most commonly used for page layout. Layout tables do not have logical headers that can be mapped to information within the table cells.

WebAIM (2005). Design>Web Design>Accessibility

23.
#22987

Creating Captions Using MAGpie 2.0

MAGpie allows the captioning of Web audio and video content for use in QuickTime, RealPlayer, and Windows Media Player.

WebAIM (2004). Resources>Software>Accessibility>Video

24.
#32876

Creating Semantic Structure

Despite the nature of the Web and the vast change in its role from a structural medium to a visual media, it is still important that Web content be designed with proper structure. With better support for Cascading Style Sheets in recent versions of Web browsers, developers can change the appearance of structural elements to meet their design and visual preferences.

WebAIM (2006). Articles>Web Design>Standards

25.
#32918

CSS in Action: Invisible Content Just for Screen Reader Users

Most of the techniques for making web content accessible to screen readers are invisible to visual users. Alternative (alt) text, table header tags, table summaries, and form

WebAIM (2007). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS

 
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