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"The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect." - Tim Berners-Lee, W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web The Web is fundamentally designed to work for all people, whatever their hardware, software, language, culture, location, or physical or mental ability. When the Web meets this goal, it is accessible to people with a diverse range of hearing, movement, sight, and cognitive ability. Thus the impact of disability is radically changed on the Web because the Web removes barriers to communication and interaction that many people face in the physical world. However, when websites, web technologies, or web tools are badly designed, they can create barriers that exclude people from using the Web. The mission of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) is to lead the Web to its full potential to be accessible, enabling people with disabilities to participate equally on the Web. Contents: * why: the case for web accessibility * what: examples of web accessibility * how: make your website and web tools accessible * Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) at W3C learn more

Henry, Shawn Lawton and Liam McGee. W3C (2010). Resources>Web Design>Accessibility


Accessibility Features of CSS

This document summarizes the features of the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), level 2 Recommendation ([CSS2]) known to directly affect the accessibility of Web documents. Some of the accessibility features described in this document were available in CSS1 ([CSS1]) as well. This document has been written so that other documents may refer in a consistent manner to the accessibility features of CSS.

W3C. Design>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Auxiliary Benefits of Accessible Web Design

This document is one of several resources created to assist the preparation of a business case for the implementation of Web accessibility. It describes the many business, technical and other benefits to the organization above and beyond the straightforward benefits to people with disabilities that can be realized by applying the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 1.0) to Web sites.

Arch, Andrew and Chuck Letourneau. W3C (2002). Design>Web Design>Accessibility


Cascading Style Sheets

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a simple mechanism for adding style (e.g. fonts, colors, spacing) to Web documents. Tutorials, books, mailing lists for users, etc. can be found on the 'learning CSS' page.

W3C. Design>Web Design>CSS


Checkpoints for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0

This document is an appendix to the W3C "Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0". It provides a list of all checkpoints from the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0, organized by concept, as a checklist for Web content developers.

W3C (2005). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>Standards


The CSS Saga

The saga of CSS starts in 1994. One of the authors of this book works at CERN - the cradle of the Web - and the Web is starting to be used as a platform for electronic publishing. One crucial part of a publishing platform is missing, however: there is no way to style documents. For example, there is no way to describe a newspaper-like layout in a Web page. Having worked on personalized newspaper presentations at the MIT Media Laboratory, Håkon saw the need for a style sheet language for the Web.

Lie, Hakon and Bert Bos. W3C (2008). Articles>Web Design>History>CSS


Developing a Web Accessibility Business Case for Your Organization: Overview

There are initial costs for organizations implementing Web accessibility; however, the initial costs are often offset by a full return on investment. In order to be willing to invest the initial costs, many organizations need to understand the social, technical, and financial benefits of Web accessibility and the expectations of the returns throughout the organization.

Arch, Andrew and Chuck Letourneau. W3C (2005). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>Business Case


Essential Components of Web Accessibility

This document shows how Web accessibility depends on several components working together and how improvements in specific components could substantially improve Web accessibility. It also shows how the WAI guidelines address these components.

Henry, Shawn Lawton. W3C (2006). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility


Evaluating Forms

To demonstrate an example of some accessibility issues in HTML Forms, the following content intentionally has accessibility errors.

Abou-Zahra, Shadi. W3C (2004). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>Forms


Evaluating Web Sites for Accessibility

This document outlines approaches for preliminary review Web site accessibility, and for evaluation of conformance to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0. While it does not provide checkpoint-by-checkpoint testing techniques it does include general procedures and tips for evaluation during development of Web sites, and for monitoring of established Web sites. Other resources will be developed for in-depth compliance testing. The measures described here are intended to supplement an organization's existing procedures for content management and quality assurance on their Web sites. For information about why making Web sites accessible is important read the Introductions on the WAI Resources page.

W3C. Articles>Accessibility>Usability>Web Design


Examples: WAI Web Content Accessibility Curriculum

Provides details or examples of one or more techniques that are associated with a particular checkpoint. Where possible, the examples are actually coded so that you will see how that particular technique displays or renders on your browser or user agent. In most cases, the markup that creates the 'live' example is also provided (although you can also 'View Source' to get the exact coding). Where necessary, some text is included to explain what is 'supposed' to happen (for example, if an HTML 4 attribute is not widely supported yet), or for user of non-graphical or older browsers.

Letourneau, Chuck and Geoff Freed. W3C. Design>Web Design>Accessibility>Education


Extensible Markup Language (XML) Activity Statement

The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a simple, very flexible text format derived from SGML (ISO 8879). Originally designed to meet the challenges of large-scale electronic publishing, XML is also playing an increasingly important role in the exchange of a wide variety of data on the Web.

W3C. Reference>Web Design>XML


Getting Started: Making a Web Site Accessible

An initial introduction to resources for people new to Web accessibility.

Brewer, Judy. W3C (2002). Design>Web Design>Accessibility


Graphics on the Web

There is no limit in the Web specifications to the graphical formats that can be used on the Web. You just need a MIME type so that the format is labelled correctly for transfer across the Web, and so that a suitable viewer (if one exists) can be located at the other end. In practice, certain formats are more widely understood than others; certain formats are more suited to one type of graphical data than another; so you should make an informed choice about what format to use.

W3C. Design>Web Design>Graphic Design


How People with Disabilities Use the Web

This document provides an introduction to use of the Web by people with disabilities. It illustrates some of their requirements when using Web sites and Web-based applications, and provides supporting information for the guidelines and technical work of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI).

W3C (2001). Design>Accessibility>Web Design


How to Meet WCAG 2.0

A customizable quick reference to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 requirements (success criteria) and techniques.

W3C (2008). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>Standards


HTML 5 Differences from HTML 4

HTML 5 defines the fifth major revision of the core language of the World Wide Web, HTML. "HTML 5 differences from HTML 4" describes the differences between HTML 4 and HTML 5 and provides some of the rationale for the changes.

W3C (2009). Articles>Web Design>Standards>HTML5



HTML (the Hypertext Markup Language) and CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) are two of the core technologies for building Web pages. HTML provides the structure of the page, CSS the (visual and aural) layout, for a variety of devices. Along with graphics and scripting, HTML and CSS are the basis of building web pages and web applications.

W3C (2003). Articles>Web Design>HTML>CSS


HTML/Training - Web Education Community Group

These are the W3C's HTML educational materials for web design beginners.

W3C (2012). Articles>Web Design>Standards>HTML


The Inaccessibility of CAPTCHA: Alternatives to Visual Turing Tests on the Web

A common method of limiting access to services made available over the Web is visual verification of a bitmapped image. This presents a major problem to users who are blind, have low vision, or have a learning disability such as dyslexia. This document examines a number of potential solutions that allow systems to test for human users while preserving access by users with disabilities.

W3C (2005). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>Security


Introduction to Web Accessibility

Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can use the Web. More specifically, Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the Web, and that they can contribute to the Web. Web accessibility also benefits others, including older people with changing abilities due to aging.

Henry, Shawn Lawton. W3C (2005). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility


Involving Users in Web Projects for Better, Easier Accessibility

Involving people with disabilities from the beginning of a project helps you better understand accessibility issues and implement more effective accessibility solutions. It also broadens your perspective in a way that can lead you to discover new ways of thinking about your product that will make it work better for more people in more situations.

W3C (2009). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>User Centered Design


MarkUp Validation Service

A free service that checks documents like HTML and XHTML for conformance to W3C Recommendations and other standards.

W3C. Resources>Web Design>HTML>XHTML


Mobile Web Best Practices 1.0

This document specifies Best Practices for delivering Web content to mobile devices. The principal objective is to improve the user experience of the Web when accessed from such devices. It is primarily directed at creators, maintainers and operators of Web sites. Readers of this document are expected to be familiar with the creation of Web sites, and to have a general familiarity with the technologies involved, such as Web servers and HTTP. Readers are not expected to have a background in mobile-specific technologies.

W3C (2008). Articles>Web Design>Mobile>Standards


Overview of the Web Accessibility Initiative

An online presentation explaining why Web accessibility is important and what the Web Accessibility Initiative does.

Brewer, Judy. W3C (2003). Presentations>Slideshows>Accessibility



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