A directory of resources inthe field of technical communication.

Public Understanding of Science

42 found. Page 1 of 2.

About this Site | Advanced Search | Localization | Site Maps

1 2  NEXT PAGE »



Adolescent Responses Toward a New Technology: First Associations, Information Seeking and Affective Responses to Ecogenomics   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

This paper reports on an exploratory study among adolescents (N = 752) who were introduced to the emerging technology of ecogenomics for the first time. An online survey focused on their associations with the term ecogenomics, their planned information seeking behaviors if they were to acquire information about the new technology, and their first affective responses toward ecogenomics after having read some introductory information about it. Adolescents were found to associate ecogenomics most frequently with economy. Although the Internet was the most popular medium to be used in their planned information seeking behaviors, books and science communication professionals were judged as the most trustworthy information sources. After having read the introductory information about ecogenomics most adolescents reported positive affective responses toward the new technology.

Bos, Mark J.W., Cees M. Koolstra and Jaap T.J.M. Willems. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Technology>Human Computer Interaction>Children


An Analysis of the Public Scientific Literacy Study in China   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

In March 2006, the State Council of the People's Republic of China issued "The Outline of the Action Plan for Improving Scientific Literacy for All (From 2006--2010 and then 2010--2020)" (the "Scientific Literacy Outline"), in which the official notion of scientific literacy named "Public Scientific Literacy in China" was put forward for the first time in the history of China. Subsequently, the program of "Study on Measurement Indicators of Scientific Literacy of Chinese Citizens and its Demonstration" was funded by the China Association for Science and Technology the following September. However, the notion as well as its measurement indicators still need more clarification. After reviewing some relevant literature and introducing the historical background to the concept of "Public Scientific Literacy in China" along with a detailed interpretation of its connotation, the authors do a closer examination of the measurement indicators established by the Research and Development Center for Science Communication at the University of Science and Technology of China, based on a systematical analysis of the sample surveys.

Chen, Fajun, Yumin Shi and Fei Xu. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Surveys>China


Assessment of Slovene Secondary School Students' Attitudes to Biotechnology in Terms of Usefulness, Moral Acceptability and Risk Perception   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

Quantitative and qualitative studies among 469 high school students of average age 17 years were conducted. The students’ attitudes to four practical applications of biotechnology were examined: genetically modified plants (Bt corn), genetically modified animals (salmon), and hemophilia germ line and somatic gene therapy. Each of the four applications was examined from three different viewpoints: usefulness, moral acceptability and risk perception. Bt corn production proved to be the most acceptable in terms of both usefulness and risk perception. Values for genetically modified salmon and germ line gene therapy were comparable, but much lower than those for the other two applications; this was true for both usefulness and moral acceptability. In addition, students found genetically modified salmon to be ethically much less acceptable than Bt corn. Significant gender differences were observed in the case of germ line gene therapy and genetically modified salmon.

Črne-Hladnik, Helena, Cirila Peklaj, Katarina Košmelj and Aleš Hladnik. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical>Eastern Europe


Believing in Both Genetic Determinism and Behavioral Action: A Materialist Framework and Implications   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

A disparity exists between studies reporting that genetics discourse produces deterministic or fatalistic responses and studies reporting that the majority of laypeople do not hold or adopt genetically deterministic views. This article reports data from an interview study (n = 50), and an interpretation of those data grounded in materialist understandings of discourse, that explains at least part of the disparity. The article employs a detailed reading of an illustrative transcript embedded in a quantitative content analysis to suggest that laypeople have incorporated two sets of public discourses—one that describes genetic causation and another that describes behavioral causation. These different discourse tracks are presumed to be encoded in different sets of neural networks in people’s minds. Consequently, each track can be articulated upon proper cueing, but the tracks are not related to each other to produce a discourse for speaking about gene—behavior interactions. Implications for the effects of this mode of instantiation of discourse in human individuals with regard to genes and behavior are discussed, as well as implications for message design.

Condit, Celeste M., Marita Gronnvoll, Jamie Landau, Lijiang Shen, Lanelle Wright and Tina M. Harris. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical


Bias in the Exchange of Arguments: The Case of Scientists' Evaluation of Lay Viewpoints on GM Food   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

Most perspectives on public participation share the notion that dialogues should be open, allowing participants to articulate and evaluate different views and knowledge claims. We hypothesize that participants' evaluation of claims may be biased because participants have a preference for a particular type or source of a claim. This would hamper an open dialogue. We tested the effect of three variables on scientists' evaluation of claims of the general public about GM food: the claim's favorability towards GM food, the phrasing, and the source of the claim. Results are based on a survey-experiment among 73 biotechnology-scientists. Biased processing occurred when scientists evaluated claims. Claims that were corresponding with the attitude of the scientists and that were phrased in a cognitive way were evaluated more positively than claims that were contrasting the attitude of the scientists and that were phrased in an affective way. Contrary to our expectation, scientists evaluated claims of the public more positively than claims of experts.

Cuppen, Eefje, Mattijs Hisschemöller and Cees Midden. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical>Assessment


Catastrophe Discourse in Microbiology, Its Rhetorical Form and Political Function   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

Discourses evoking an antibiotic apocalypse and a war on superbugs are emerging just at a time when so-called "catastrophe discourses" are undergoing critical and reflexive scrutiny in the context of global warming and climate change. This article combines insights from social science research into climate change discourses with applied metaphor research based on recent advances in cognitive linguistics, especially with relation to "discourse metaphors." It traces the emergence of a new apocalyptic discourse in microbiology and health care, examines its rhetorical and political function and discusses its advantages and disadvantages. It contains a reply by the author of the central discourse metaphor, "the post-antibiotic apocalypse," examined in the article.

Nerlich, Brigitte and Richard James. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical>Risk Communication


Consultations of Stakeholders on the Roles of Research in Relation to Genetically Modified Plants in France   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

This article reports the first consultations on the roles of research in relation to genetically modified plants in France. We present a new attempt at facilitating discussion towards acceptable decisions and their results. This method consists of three steps: individual in-depth interviews of 77 French stakeholders, analysis of the interviews to identify elements that could help a constructive debate among participants, and two round-table discussions to present this analysis to stakeholders and foster discussions among them. The interviews exhibit a diversity of perceptions that are vaster than the pro or against points of view within the media. The problems raised during interviews deal with how discussions on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are being done, how risks are taken into account, how the information is diffused, and how there is a minimal level of attention paid to social needs in GMOs' production. A series of problems more specific to the subject of the study discuss the weaknesses of the public research system. On the basis of these problems, 21 elements were identified that the stakeholders would like to see improved. One request seemed to be important for all types of stakeholders: “Raising the objectivity of the debate on GMOs.” Our facilitation exercise led to a set of innovative concrete proposals for the design of an effective national debate.

Ricroch, Agnès and Franck Jésus. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical>Research


Consumer Attitudes and the Governance of Food Safety   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

This paper reports the analysis of a recent study of public perception of food safety governance in Spain, using genetically modified (GM) foods as an indicator. The data make clear that Spanish food consumers are aware of their rights and role in the marketplace. They are critical of current regulatory decision making, which they perceive to be unduly influenced by certain social actors, such as industry. In contrast, consumers demand decisions to be based primarily on scientific opinion, as well as consumer preferences. They want authorities to facilitate informed purchasing decisions, and favor labeling of GM foods mostly on the grounds of their right to know. However, consumers' actual level of knowledge with respect to food technology and food safety remains low. There are several ambivalences as to the real impact of these attitudes on actual consumer behavior (specifically when it comes to organizing themselves or searching out background information).

Todt, Oliver, Emilio Muñoz, Marta González, Gloria Ponce and Betty Estévez. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical>Risk Communication


Coping with Uncertainty: Assessing Nanotechnologies in a Citizen Panel in Switzerland   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

The policy shift towards "upstream public engagement" requires dealing with a lack of individual and stabilized scientific knowledge that accompanies any early stage of research and development. This article examines how actors cope with this epistemic uncertainty when deliberating emerging technologies. Analyzing the arguments of the participants in a Swiss citizen panel on nanotechnology, the article explores how actors form their opinions in an epistemically nonstabilized situation. The article shows how actors develop a strategy to handle this situation: analogies, such as to other risk technologies or "nature," and personal experiences as patients and consumers are used as interpretive patterns and serve as tools to cope with the unknown. Focusing on the ways uncertainty is handled, this approach is differentiated from other models to explain public attitudes toward emerging technologies, such as the "scientific literacy model" or the "cognitive miser model."

Valérie Burri, Regula. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Assessment


Defining Issue-Based Publics for Public Engagement: Climate Change as a Case Study   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

Understanding your audiences' perceptions is key to the success of any communication campaign. This research note outlines a pilot study using the Situational Model of publics to segment the broader public. Focus groups were used to study publics' understandings and perceptions of climate change to determine if this issue-based publics model is relevant to this field. The work shows the potential of this model of publics, but in the case of climate change it may need a minor refinement.

Featherstone, Helen, Emma Weitkamp, Katy Ling and Frank Burnet. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Environmental>Case Studies


Designer Babies on Tap? Medical Students' Attitudes to Pre-Implantation Genetic Screening   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

This paper describes two studies about the determinants of attitudes to pre-implantation genetic screening in a multicultural sample of medical students from the United States. Sample sizes were 292 in study 1 and 1464 in study 2. Attitudes were of an undifferentiated nature, but respondents did make a major distinction between use for disease prevention and use for enhancement. No strong distinctions were made between embryo selection and germ line gene manipulations, and between somatic gene therapy and germ line gene manipulations. Religiosity was negatively associated with acceptance of “designer baby” technology for Christians and Muslims but not Hindus. However, the strongest and most consistent influence was an apparently moralistic stance against active and aggressive interference with natural processes in general. Trust in individuals and institutions was unrelated to acceptance of the technology, indicating that fear of abuse by irresponsible individuals and corporations is not an important determinant of opposition.

Meisenberg, Gerhard. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical


Embryonic Stem Cell: A Climax in the Reign of the Brazilian Media   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

In the last few years, embryonic stem cell research has been widely debated in Brazil and a "star" in the national media. Because of the notoriety of the issue, the media have sometimes been criticized for oversimplification, exaggeration and distortion. In this context, we analyzed the media during an important time: in 2008, the Federal Supreme Court held historical hearings to decide whether Brazilian scientists could continue using embryonic stem cells. First, we focused on letters sent by readers to one of the most popular newspapers, O Globo. Second, we analyzed the Brazilian news coverage of embryonic stem cells during a crucial week in the public debate. At the end of May 2008, under pressure from Brazilian media and society, the Ministers of the Supreme Court approved research using embryonic stem cells.

Jurberg, Claudia, Marina Verjovsky, Gabriel de Oliveira Cardoso Machado and Ottília R. Affonso-Mitidieri. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical>Brazil


The Emergence of a Community Mapping Network: Coastal Eelgrass Mapping in British Columbia   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

The purpose of this paper is to document and theorize the emergence of a network of stewards concerned about the conservation of a marine habitat called eelgrass along the coastline of British Columbia, Canada. Today, by engaging as professional biologists, government employees, and volunteers using various mapping, outreach, and communication tools, these stewards generate knowledge on the geographic location and health of eelgrass habitat, how to educate the public, how to coordinate volunteers, and how to approach local governments— with the ultimate goal of convincing others that eelgrass is worth protecting. Our two-year ethnographic study began in the second year of a project that was designed to train twenty community coordinators how to map and monitor eelgrass habitat. The coordinators were faced with complex social, cultural, political, historical, and material landscapes—which made us wonder about how it was possible for the network to hold together while extending its reach. We provide evidence to support the claim that the network became more stable and was extended by particular performances. These performances emerged from recognition and resolution of resistances, in which the network was both resource for and object of its activity. In the process, (a) knowledge produced is made to move and do something, (b) coordinators and scientists involved acted as knowledge brokers between various communities, and (c) communication between coordinators was enabled and maintained.

Boyer, Leanna, Wolff-Michael Roth and Nikki Wright. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Geography>Canada


Evolving Scientific Research Governance in Australia: A Case Study of Engaging Interested Publics in Nanotechnology Research   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

This paper examines the prospects for integrating social context questions within science and technology research and development governance. While the use of public engagement to investigate social aspects of emerging technologies is increasingly accepted, incorporating social understandings into research and development processes is far less developed. The paper outlines two Australian public engagement workshops in the social issues of nanotechnologies, and a third workshop with nanoscientists, which explored governance options for incorporating social context questions within research processes. Our research suggests that in Australia we are still some distance from integrating social issues into nanotechnology research and development governance. In part, this is because the difficulties of prediction and control of nanotechnologies, together with particular characteristics of scientific cultures and institutions, make both prospects and outcomes of integration difficult to assess.

Katz, Evie, Fiona Solomon, Wendy Mee and Roy Lovel. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Regulatory Writing>Australia


The Extinct Animal Show: The Paleoimagery Tradition and Computer Generated Imagery in Factual Television Programs   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

Extinct animals have always been popular subjects for the media, in both fiction, and factual output. In recent years, a distinctive new type of factual television program has emerged in which computer generated imagery is used extensively to bring extinct animals back to life. Such has been the commercial audience success of these programs that they have generated some public and academic debates about their relative status as science, documentary, and entertainment, as well as about their reflection of trends in factual television production, and the aesthetic tensions in the application of new media technologies. Such discussions ignore a crucial contextual feature of computer generated extinct animal programs, namely the established tradition of paleoimagery. This paper examines a selection of extinct animal shows in terms of the dominant frames of the paleoimagery genre. The paper suggests that such an examination has two consequences. First, it allows for a more context-sensitive evaluation of extinct animal programs, acknowledging rather than ignoring relevant representational traditions. Second, it allows for an appraisal and evaluation of public and critical reception of extinct animal programs above and beyond the traditional debates about tensions between science, documentary, entertainment, and public understanding.

Campbell, Vincent. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical>History


Framing of Science Issues in Opinion-Leading News: International Comparison of Biotechnology Issue Coverage   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

This paper tests how the biotechnology issue, as an example of a major contemporary scientific debate, was framed and reframed by opinion-leading newspapers in Germany, Britain and the United States during the years 2000--2. The research design suggests a theoretical foundation of structure frame categories on the article level, combined with frames on the argument level. Argument framing is analyzed in actors' statements and journalists' own comments. Article framing is analyzed as structures and interpretative patterns in the whole news item. Comparative and cluster analysis of structure frames on the article level, argument frames, and single attributes of the text, shows that certain reframing takes place when media attention increases, in the form of a stronger ethical discourse in Germany and a more prominent public discourse in Britain. In the US opinion-leading press, the scientific-economic discourse is consequent.

Listerman, Thomas. Public Understanding of Science. Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical


The Gap Between Scientists and Journalists: The Case of Mercury Science in Québec's Press   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

This research aimed to better understand the gap between journalists and scientists in the context of the media coverage of an environmental issue in Quebec (Canada). Through in-depth interviews with journalists and scientists, we were able to identify different sources of frustration felt by both protagonists, notably the question of the scientists' revision of the journalists' text, the journalists' lack of accuracy, and the problem of different time frames in the media and the scientific worlds. This study also offered insights for bridging the gaps.

Maillé, Marie-Ève, Johanne Saint-Charles and Marc Lucotte. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical>Canada


Genetically Modified Food in the News: Media Representations of the GM Debate in the UK   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

This paper analyses a corpus of articles on GM crops and food which appeared in six UK newspapers in the first three months of 2004, the year following the GM Nation? debate (2003). Using the methods of critical discourse analysis we focus on how specific and pervasive representations of the major stakeholders in the national debate on GM--the British public, the British government, the science of GM, and biotechnology companies--served significant rhetorical functions in the controversy. Of particular significance was the pervasive representation of the British public as uniformly opposed to GM crops and food which served rhetorically to position the British government as undemocratic and as being beholden to powerful political and economic interests. Of significance also in our analysis, is how the science of GM farming itself became a highly contested arena. In short, our analysis demonstrates how the GM debate was represented in the newsprint media as a "battleground" of competing interests. We conclude by considering the possible implications of this representation given the increasing emphasis placed on the importance of deliberative and inclusive forms of science policy decision-making.

Augoustinos, Martha and Shona Crabb. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical


Global Warming--Global Responsibility? Media Frames of Collective Action and Scientific Certainty   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

The increasing interconnectedness of the world that characterizes the process of globalization compels us to interlink local, national, and transnational phenomena, such as environmental risks, in both journalistic and academic discourse. Among environmental risks of global scope climate change is probably the one receiving the most attention at present, not least in the media. Globalization notwithstanding, national media are still dominated by a national logic in the presentation of news, and tensions arise between this media logic and the transnational character of environmental risks that call for a collective responsibility transcending the borders of the nation-states. This article presents results from studies of the construction of global climate change in three Swedish newspapers. It discusses the media's attribution of responsibility for collective action along an axis ranging from local to national to transnational, and highlights the media's reluctance to display any kind of scientific uncertainty that would undermine the demand for collective action. The results underline the media's responsiveness to the political setting in which they operate and the growing relevance of the transnational political realm of Europe for the construction of news frames on global climate change in European national media.

Olausson, Ulrika. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Journalism>Environmental


Guardians of Our Future: New Zealand Mothers and Sustainable Biotechnology   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

In year two of a three-year project, New Zealand mothers of children aged 10 and under were interviewed to examine the social, cultural and spiritual dimensions of biotechnology. Ten focus groups were conducted and used “sustainable biotechnology” as a center-point for discussion, concentrating on four different biotechnology scenarios. The findings of the research were consistent with year one and with findings on the general public throughout the world. Further insights revealed in year two suggested that women saw their and future generations' quality of life as intimately intertwined with the health of the environment, making the environment particularly important. Because of this, anything that had potentially negative consequences on the ecosystem was perceived to pose a threat to the woman, her family and future generations. The need for strict controls to be put in place by regulatory and research authorities was therefore seen as an important step in allaying her fears. True partnership and participation was seen as critical, since it would only be by such means that mothers would feel they were in control of the safety of their own children.

Gamble, Joanna C. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical>New Zealand


The (Im)Balance of Nature: A Public Perception Time-Lag?   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

The last two decades have seen a conceptual shift within environmental and social sciences from an emphasis on ecosystem stability and balance to an acknowledgement of the importance of flux and change in the natural world. This has profound implications for conservation management and policy and has driven an (incomplete) transition from managing to maintain (bio)diversity and ecological stability at some historically derived "optimum" to managing to maintain important ecosystem and evolutionary processes such as nutrient cycles and migration. Here, we investigate whether this change from a "balance of nature" metaphor to a more dynamic perspective ("flux of nature") is reflected in the representation of conservation and ecosystem management in the news media, the Internet, and the academic literature. We found that the media and the global Internet community still portray the aim of conservation science and of conservationists as being one of maintaining stability, harmony and balance.

Ladle, Richard J. and Lindsey Gillson. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Environmental


Informing, Involving or Engaging? Science Communication, In the Ages of Atom-, Bio- and Nanotechnology   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

Science communication has shifted considerably in Europe over the last decades. Three technology controversies on atoms, genes, and nanoscale sciences and nanotechnologies (NST) turned the style of communication from one-way information, participation and dialogues to the idea of an early and more democratic engagement of the public. Analyzing science communication developing over the three controversies, this article shows that what happened in one technology field fed forward to and contributed to shaping the subsequent field and that communication was initiated at a progressively earlier stage of technology development. The article concludes with an empirical analysis of six public engagement projects in NST, saying that the shift towards more democratic engagement of the public hasn’t been as profound and complete as has been thought. This is particularly due to the continuing adoption of a simplistic contrast structure that opposes science and the public as two self-contained, antagonistic social entities.

Kurath, Monika and Priska Gisler. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>History>Europe


Just Around the Corner: Rhetorics of Progress and Promise in Genetic Research   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

The emerging “diabetes epidemic” threatens to affect 366 million people worldwide by 2030. In the UK, almost 2 million people (about 3.9 percent of the population) are currently diagnosed with diabetes and it is estimated that a further 1 million people have the disease but do not realize it. The prevalence of diabetes, its complications and their effects on the lives of those living with diabetes mean that diabetes research has the potential to bring significant benefits. In this paper, we are concerned with the research involving human embryonic stem (HES) cells that sees diabetes as a potential therapeutic location. Drawing on the idea of the “certainty trough” we examine how the hopes and uncertainties associated with this complex research agenda are understood. We show that those at the research front and those most opposed to the research agenda appear to be the most aware of the uncertainties that need to be resolved. In contrast, funders, typically one-step removed from the research work, see the promise of the research as more real and more likely to be achieved. Significantly, these optimistic funders are supported in their beliefs by the research scientists as constitutive claims are reproduced within the contingent forum. The effect is a collaborative project in which the promise of a technical solution “just around the corner” is sustained whilst concerns about the future difficulties are marginalized.

Evans, Robert, Inna Kotchetkova and Susanne Langer. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical


The Korean Press and Hwang's Fraud   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

This case study explores why South Korean journalists overlooked allegations of scientific misconduct against South Korean scientist Dr. Woo Suk Hwang and even indirectly defended him in 2005—6. Nineteen journalists, who covered Hwang’s story for five of South Korea’s leading daily newspapers, were interviewed. The interviewees added insights about the news coverage of the Hwang scandal not identified in previous literature, such as the difficulties among journalists to suspend their personal disbelief about the criticisms and evidence against Hwang. The findings suggest the news judgments that occurred in Korean newsrooms during the Hwang scandal reflected a socially constructed process of negotiation among news media professionals and between journalists and scientists. The findings also suggest it may be best to consider journalistic mores within a multidimensional framework that includes journalistic perceptions of socio-cultural norms, internal newsroom standards for evidence, newsroom competence and training, normative journalism ethics, news gathering techniques, perceived dissonance and professed risk avoidance.

Park, Jaeyung, Hyoungjoon Jeon and Robert B. Logan. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Biomedical>Case Studies


Making a Small Country Count: Nanotechnology in Danish Newspapers from 1996 to 2006   (peer-reviewed)   (members only)

This article presents the results of a content study of how nanotechnology has been framed in Danish national newspapers by taking a random sample of 250 articles published between 1996 and 2006 from a population of 1,062 articles. The articles were analyzed for "dominant frame" and "dominant tone" with respect to risks and benefits of nanotechnology. The findings demonstrate a remarkable positive tone in the articles with a ratio of ten to one in favor of "benefits outweigh risks" versus "risks outweigh benefits." Using data from this content study the author analyzes patterns of newspaper attention and framing. The data are used in a comparative study to challenge simplistic narratives of general similarities and differences between European and US contexts, making a claim for paying more attention to local cultural and national contexts in studies of media coverage of emerging technologies.

Schmidt, Rikke. Public Understanding of Science (2009). Articles>Scientific Communication>Engineering>Scandinavia



Follow us on: TwitterFacebookRSSPost about us on: TwitterFacebookDeliciousRSSStumbleUpon