Many technical communicators have heard about Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS), or Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), but some do not understand the concept. This paper introduces CALS, the relationship between CALS and SGML, the structure of SGML, and how SGML affects technical communicators.
Technical writers who must maintain complex, delicately interconnected information often look to object-oriented SGML databases as a way of storing, retrieving, reusing, and reassembling the constituent objects of new documents, created on the fly to respond to a particular customer’s needs. The SGML tags help identify structural packages such as procedures, illustrations, or glossary items; in a large database, then, writers can filter out unwanted material, locating only the structural pieces they need for the job in hand. For instance, to produce a quick reference, a writer might pull up the names of procedures and their steps, but not the introductions or explanations. Similarly, a user could search for illustrations only. But illustrations of what? With no subject matter defined, such searches result in hundreds, even tens of thousands of hits. To speed up access to the precise passages wanted, end users and writers need a way to narrow their searches by defining the precise subject matter (the meaning, or semantics) as well as the structural elements they seek.
SGML is a language for describing the structure of a document. The language involves using a system of tags for elements of a document. Document analysis is the process of discovering the elements of a document and understanding how the parts work together to form the document.
I and my co-workers developed an author-friendly method for electronic submission to an academic journal, which is published using a SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)-based system. The method uses a style function and RTF (rich text format), and can be used in popular word processing software: Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, PageMaker, etc. The method has been adopted in Bulletin of Chemical Society of Japan (CSJ) since April 1994, which is the monthly English journal of CSJ, and has been published since 1937. The journal has been published in a SGML-based system since January 1993. Our electronic submission method will be included in SIST (Standards for Information of Science and Technology) No. 14 (draft): 'Guideline for electronic submission', which is considered in SIST Committee in Japan, and will be published in near future.
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) became an ISO-approved standard and was adopted as a Japanese Industrial Standards. Recently, SGML has begun to be used more widely in Japan. We, the Corporate Design Center of Ricoh Company, Ltd., have completed development of the a single SGML module DTD (Document Type Definition), customization of a SGML editor, and the implementation of review system using the world wide web. In addition, we have developed an automatic DTP system based on SGML.
Now we come to the point of actually producing documents using structural markup—either eXtensible Markup Language (XML) or Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Our sequence of topics illustrates the recommended steps to follow when you first implement structural markup: Learn about it and convince yourself and your organization of its benefits, identify your specific goals and expectations, and spend plenty of time selecting or designing your document structures. Only then should you get down to the specifics of how to produce XML or SGML documents. If you simply try to drop in an XML editor to replace your current word processing application, you will be lucky to avoid total disaster.
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is an ISO standard for document publishing. SGML allows you to port your documentation from one plagorm to another easily. Another benefit is that SGML lets you write the information one time and use it in many places. After planning your SGML implementation, the first step in your implementation is to create a Document Type Definition( DTD). In order to create a DTD, you must complete several steps: identify project parameters, analyze your documents, model your document, convert your model to DTD mark up, and test your DTD.
HTML validators are essential tools for eliminating embedded syntactical errors in HTML documents that can cause client-side software errors. But HTML validators are also extensible tools that can be adapted to serve a variety of other useful functions, as well. The systematic use of an HTML validator, coupled with a 'house style' DTD, can simplify immensely the task of creating a consistent repository of hypertext-based corporate information.
“SGML is too complex and too costly to implement widely. ” This criticism has often been leveled at the Standard Generalized Markup Language. Mainstream SGML, a new open architecture, challenges that view. Traditionally, implementation has required companies to invest heavily in training. Authors had to learn how to create documents using complex SGML syntax. This method was time-consuming and yielded a slow return on investment. The Mainstream approach to implementing SGML uses resources that already exist in a company. Mainstream SGML provides an alternative to costly, complex native SGML document management systems. This workshop shows you how you can use mainstream SGML to successfully implement SGML in your mainstream business and publishing processes.
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is an accepted standard today. It promises to free many companies and industries from problems with document conversion, compatibility, and interoperability. Whether you’re curious about SGML’s benefits or actively planning to implement SGML, this workshop will help. As a participant, you will learn how to apply a life-cycle approach to implementing SGML. Through hands-on exercises, you will gain the knowledge to succesfully plan and implement SGML solutions.
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is an accepted standard today. It promises to free many companies and industries from problems with document conversion, compatibility, and interoperability. Whether you’re curious about SGML’s benefits or actively planning to implement SGML, this workshop can help. As a participant, you will learn how to apply a life-cycle approach to implementing SGML. Through hands-on exercises, you will gain the knowledge to successfully plan and implement SGML solutions.
SGML (ISO 8879-1986, The Standard Generalized Markup Language) is now in the mainstream of document design and development. Effective application of this International Standard demands a through understanding of Document Analysis and the four components of an SGML Application. The SGML Declaration establishes the overall syntax. The SGML Prolog uses this syntax to define a document model. An SGML Instance is a data file created in conformance with the Prolog's model and an SGML Canonical file is the output ofParsing the Instance. This paper reviews the application and interrelationship of these components.
Two years ago we began the process of upgrading our content management system. Part of this upgrade required our data to be migrated from an Informix database to an Oracle database. This presented us with the opportunity to convert our data from SGML to XML. This presentation will focus on three areas: analysis/preparation for migration, migration of the data and lessons learned.
By applying software engineering principles to the domain of documentation, we define a process that is being phased in over time. Using SGML to structure the information categories for on-line help and on-line documentation, we not only enable ejjficient retrieval of information but also increase the eficiency in development and quality of the documentation product.
The potential benefits of re-usable, portable information have many organizations contemplating a move to a Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) environment. A successful SGML implementation requires thorough research to identify project goals and requirements as well as a formal implementation plan.
More and more publication departments are moving to Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) to develop and produce their publications. Implementing SGML is definitely not a trivial task. It requires a great deal of planning and research before the actual implementation can even begin. Communicators are key contributors to make the transition smooth and successful. After all, they are the ones that know the department 5 publications most intimately. What can communicators do to prepare and plan for SGML? This paper addresses the answer to that question.
One of the inventors of the markup language that evolved into Standard Generalized Markup Language describes the origins of SGML and provides an anecdotal history of markup language development from the late 1960s to the 1980s.
SGML (ISO 8879) provides organizations a standard for structuring and managing electronic information independent of software and hardware restrictions. Its premise is that all documents have a logical structure that can be represented with symbols. Using these symbols, SGML identifies a document’s elements and their interrelation slips. SGML separates format from content, allowing masses of information to be logically stored and easily retrieved. Data from one document marked with SGML tags can be used to create everything from brochures to reference manuals. This workshop emphasizes SGML document analysis and its impact on technical communicators.
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) is a viable transmission vehicle for Scientific and Technical Information (STI) communications. SGML is an integral component within the CALS (Computer Aided Logistics and Support) initiative. SGML as identified in this paper will be the transmission device for STI. This paper is designed to provide a high level overview of the Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to the Technical Information and Publications group within the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. This paper will address the genealogy of the initial efforts to (1) generate a specification (limited to tagging scientific and technical data) (2) generate applicable Document Type Definitions (DTD’s) and (3) develop a proof of concept to DOE for evaluation. This paper is not designed to provide a lesson in document analysis, DTD preparation or SGML transmission. This paper does however provide a structured approach starting at ground zero and systematically reaching the point of document delivery.
The Technical Publications department of DSC Communications Corporation decided to use SGML as a method of information creation, storage, and management; obtained buy-in from management and appropriate personnel; selected and trained a team; created and implemented a project plan for an SGML prototype project.
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) is an international standard publishing technology that's increasingly being used in government, industry, and academia. Despite this growth, SGML is perhaps the most misunderstood technology around.
SGML is a tool that will change the way technical communicators work, it will also change the way companies operate. To implement SGML requires careful planning. Success will allow information to be created once and used repeatedly. This technology will benefit any company that requires large amounts of technical information to be shared and eventually updated. DTDs, FOSIs and parsers will all have to be understood before a move to SGML is contemplated. SGML does for document creation what word processing did for typing, some years ago. It adds repeatable format structure and style to an information document.
The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is a standard for describing three-dimensional, virtual scenes and environments that can be served via the World Wide Web. A rapidly emerging communication medium, VRML may soon become a technology used by technical communicators in many industries where 30 information truly enhances a message.
Authors producing larger texts usually structure their documents by paragraph-styles and character-styles, which are analysed by the program. This enables the user to produce, through the configuration of the converter, syntactically correct and ‘clean’ HTML, XML and even SGML.