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The Basics of HTML

In this article you will learn the basics of HTML—what it is, what it does, its history in brief, and what the structure of an HTML document looks like.

Francis, Mark Norman. Opera (2008). Articles>Web Design>HTML>XHTML


Best Practices When Coding a Website

The layout of your code can really affect how fast your project happens, and whether or not you meet deadlines. On top of that it can also determine how easy it is to read and edit later on, when you’re making alterations to it. That’s why it’s important to follow some of these best practices on how to successfully code a neat website.

Webtint (2009). Articles>Web Design>Standards>XHTML


Better Living Through XHTML

Everything you wanted to know about converting from HTML to XHTML, including why you’d want to, tools that help, changes in the way browsers display XHTML pages, shortcuts, bugs, workarounds, and other tips you won’t find elsewhere.

Zeldman, Jeffrey. List Apart, A (2002). Design>Web Design>XHTML


Building a More Semantic Web With Microformats

This paper will introduce the Semantic Web, the next stage in the development of the web. We will explain why semantics are important, how they can help computers catalogue data, and how this will benefit us as individuals. We will also look at microformats, an ongoing project the aims to help us create a more semantic web. We assume you have a good knowledge of XHTML.

Mercurytide (2006). Articles>Web Design>Information Design>XHTML


Bye, Bye EMBED

Break the chains of EMBED and live free. Elizabeth Casto explains how to embed movies without using invalid markup.

Castro, Elizabeth. List Apart, A (2006). Design>Web Design>Multimedia>XHTML


Clean Up Your Act with XHTML   (PDF)

Describes how elements and attributes are rendered in XHTML.

McLaughlin, Douglas J. Intercom (2000). Design>Web Design>XHTML


Common Ideas Between HTML and XHTML

As of this writing, HTML and XHTML are both being used to create Web sites. But there are multiple versions of each, with specific changes and ideas attached. The following table shows the current W3C HTML and XHTML recommendations of note.

Web Standards Project (2004). Articles>Web Design>HTML>XHTML


Download our Site Template and Make the Leap to XHTML and CSS2   (members only)

If you face a Web site redesign or need a head start on your development efforts, our free Dreamweaver MX XHTML and CSS2 template may come in handy. Download the template and see how XHTML and CSS2 can reduce coding time and increase site accessibility.

Morton, Shawn. TechRepublic (2003). Design>Web Design>Standards>XHTML


Dynamic Text Replacement

Let your server do the walking! Whether you're replacing one headline or a thousand, Stewart Rosenberger's Dynamic Text Replacement automatically swaps XHTML text with an image of that text, consistently displayed in any font you own. The markup is clean, semantic, and accessible. No CSS hacks are required, and you needn't open Photoshop or any other image editor. Read about it today; use it on personal and commercial web projects tomorrow.

Rosenberger, Stewart. List Apart, A (2004). Design>Web Design>CSS>XHTML


Extending XHTML: Target and Strict

That the target attribute is not by default allowed in valid XHTML 1.1 or XHTML 1.0 Strict continues to be a source of frustration for designers. It simply doesn't have to be.

Burkett, Wayne. Dionidium (2004). Design>Web Design>Standards>XHTML


Fast and Easy XHTML

Wondering how to turn your HTML markup into XHTML? Here are a few quick tips to teach you the very basics, a sample XHTML document, and resources for more information.

Kaiser, Shirley E. Website Tips (2001). Design>Web Design>HTML>XHTML


Fix Your Site With the Right DOCTYPE

Per HTML and XHTML standards, a DOCTYPE (short for “document type declaration”) informs the validator which version of (X)HTML you’re using, and must appear at the very top of every web page. DOCTYPEs are a key component of compliant web pages: your markup and CSS won’t validate without them.

Zeldman, Jeffrey. List Apart, A (2002). Design>Web Design>Standards>XHTML


"Forgiving" Browsers Considered Harmful

Current browsers are very forgiving; they quietly correct or gloss over many common HTML errors. This makes it easy for people to experience the joy of creating their own web pages with a minimum of frustration—if a page displays correctly, then it's “right.” Unfortunately, by hiding the need for structure that the web will require as it moves towards XHTML and XML, these forgiving browsers have helped create a world of structural HTML illiterates. As long as browsers continue to parse and display HTML that isn't well-formed or valid, we will never learn the right ways, and we will never get to a structural web.

Eisenberg, J. David. List Apart, A (2001). Design>Web Design>Standards>XHTML


HTML Versus XHTML: Which Should We Use, and Why?

HTML 4.01 is as valuable as XHTML 1.0 in a daily usage. The syntax proposed by XHTML 1.0 has several important benefits. The weight of these benefits has to be evaluated in the context of your project: Use the right tool for the right job. For a Web designer, starting to use XHTML 1.0 will be helpful in some circumstances and will certainly help you to smoothly negotiate the future. XHTML 1.0 gives a wonderful opportunity to learn about XML languages and their possibilities without having to learn new semantics because you’re working with familiar tags and attributes.

Web Standards Project (2005). Articles>Web Design>HTML>XHTML


HTML, XHTML, Semantics and the Future of the Web

Clarifies exactly what XHTML is, explains why you need to be learning about it from today, and steps through the process of transitioning to the standards based way of marking up for the web, and beyond.

Allsopp, John. Western Civilization (2005). Articles>Web Design>Information Design>XHTML


Introducing XHTML

The benefits of transforming HTML from a stand-alone language into an XML version of itself aren't immediately apparent until you understand the inherent value of XML. Since the language syntax is so strict in XML, parsers (the software that reads and understands the code you write) are a lot easier to develop. Ultimately, it will allow browsers to become smaller, faster, and more stable. It also means your code will behave in a far more predictable way: Either something will work, or you will get an error. It will be a marked difference from the voodoo we experience across multiple browsers today.

Veen, Jeffrey. Webmonkey (1999). Design>Web Design>Standards>XHTML


Introduction to XHTML

Most people have heard of HTML - the language of the web. Far fewer have heard of XHTML. Believe it or not, HTML is dead and XHTML is here to take its place. This article goes through XHTML in technical detail, and points out the key differences between it and traditional HTML.

Duffy, Scott. XGuru (2003). Design>Web Design>XHTML


Joe Clark's Answers -- in Valid XHTML

An extremely interesting but rather long read -- answers each question thoroughly and, there is plenty of discourse following the piece itself.

Clark, Joe. Slashdot (2002). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>XHTML


Linking in XHTML 2.0

As a fundamental part of the Web, hypertext linking has been the subject of repeated attempts at standardization beyond the basic format allowed in simple HTML. Such attempts can be characterized as efforts to balance machine processing ability with authoring convenience. The latest specification in this area, XHTML 2.0, just might have gotten it right.

Dubinko, Micah. IBM (2005). Articles>Web Design>Standards>XHTML


Long Live the Q Tag

IE/Win does not render these quotation marks, and because of this, most web authors choose not to use the Q tag. I'm here to change all that!

Cordoni, Stacey. List Apart, A (2006). Design>Web Design>HTML>XHTML


Marking Up Documents in XHTML

XHTML is HTML described as an application of XML. It is very similar to HTML, indeed all the element names and their semantics are identical, but it has some important differences. We will look at the more important of these now.

HTML Writers Guild. Design>Web Design>XHTML>Semantic


MarkUp Validation Service

A free service that checks documents like HTML and XHTML for conformance to W3C Recommendations and other standards.

W3C. Resources>Web Design>HTML>XHTML


Migrating from HTML to XHTML and XML - Part I

This is the first part of a two-part article describing a detailed methodology for migrating HTML files to the structure and flexibility of XHTML and/or XML. By using XHTML to add structure and separate content from presentation, you'll be better positioned for a move to XML. Even if you never move to XML, your XHTML files will be easier to create and maintain, and will be more accessible.

James-Tanny, Char. WritersUA (2006). Design>Web Design>Standards>XHTML


Migrating from HTML to XHTML and XML - Part II

This is the second part of a two-part article describing a detailed methodology for migrating HTML files to the structure and flexibility of XHTML and/or XML.

James-Tanny, Char. WritersUA (2006). Articles>Web Design>Standards>XHTML


Migrating from HTML to XML

As the Internet world shifts its focus to XML and related technologies, what happens to HTML? Everywhere you go, products are becoming 'XMLitized' as vendors rush to gain market share. While this is great for companies that are only now beginning to build their infrastructures, what about the rest of us whose sites have existed for years, accumulating documents architected on old HTML technology? How are we to take our millions and millions of HTML documents and bring them into the next generation of Internet computing? Fortunately, the market for tools in this space is growing, and technologies like Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) are making it easier to migrate your repository of existing HTML documents.

Fischer, Peter. New Architect (2000). Design>Web Design>XML>XHTML



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