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Accessibility and Cascading Style Sheets

An essay from an accessibility class, on the use of CSS to increase access to a page.

Bartlett, Kynn. HTML Writers Guild (1999). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Accessibility Features of CSS

This document summarizes the features of the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), level 2 Recommendation ([CSS2]) known to directly affect the accessibility of Web documents. Some of the accessibility features described in this document were available in CSS1 ([CSS1]) as well. This document has been written so that other documents may refer in a consistent manner to the accessibility features of CSS.

W3C. Design>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Accessible Pop-up Links

Sometimes we have to use pop-ups — so we might as well do them right. This article will show you how to make them more accessible and reliable while simplifying their implementation.

Chassot, Caio. List Apart, A (2004). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Building Accessible Static Navigation with CSS

When building a navigation menu for a web site, steps should be taken to ensure that it is accessible, and degrades gracefully in older browsers with lesser CSS support. In this article we will explore one such implementation. The navigation menu you see in this example is built with valid, semantic HTML and CSS - no JavaScript is involved, as I felt this was unnecessary. The static (non-expanding/collapsing) nature of the example suits a web site comprised of twenty or less target pages.

Palinkas, Frank M. Opera (2008). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Choose an Accessible Image Replacement Method

The technique of using CSS to replace normal HTML text, mostly for headings, with a background image in order to achieve a particular look has been talked about many, many times since early 2003.Several different image replacement methods have been proposed, each with their pros and cons. Some methods create accessibility problems, while others place restrictions on the type of image you can use or force you to use extraneous markup. No method that I am aware of is perfect.

Johansson, Roger. 456 Berea Street (2007). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Creating Accessible Cascading Style Sheets

For years, the only way to format HTML in a visually appealing way was to use tables, even though tables were originally created to display tabular data. As the Web evolved and became more sophisticated, designers wanted to do more than just display text, they wanted to emulate printed documents. They wanted to make an artistic statement. There's nothing wrong with that. In fact, tables can be used for layout without ruining the accessibility of a Web site. Yes, it's ok to use tables for layout. Still, you can take your Web design to a higher level by eliminating tables entirely. The way to do this is through CSS (Cascading Style Sheets).

Bohman, Paul. WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


CSS in Action: Invisible Content Just for Screen Reader Users

Most of the techniques for making web content accessible to screen readers are invisible to visual users. Alternative (alt) text, table header tags, table summaries, and form

WebAIM (2007). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Grid Design Basics: Grids for Web Page Layouts

Since tables were co-opted for layout purposes, columns have become key to many Web design layouts, and this thinking continued when CSS took over from tables (at least in the minds of savvy designers) for Web-page presentation. However, other fields of layout design don’t think in arbitrary columns, they work with grids, and these form the basis for the structure of page designs. This article will provide the lowdown on grid design for Web pages.

Grannell, Craig. Opera (2008). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


High Accessibility, High Design: CSS to the Rescue

Anyone with good graphic-design skills can use Web standards to produce attractive Web sites that function adequately for nearly all viewers and very well for most viewers – including people with disabilities. This article will explore a few details concerning the interplay of accessibility and Web design.

Voren, Naar. NaarVoren.nl (2004). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


A More Accessible Map

Is there a way to display text-based data on a map, keeping it accessible, useful and visually attractive? Yes: using an accessible CSS-based map in which the underlying map data is separated from the visual layout.

Duffey, Seth. List Apart, A (2006). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Screen Readers and 'display:none'

When an element is hidden with display: none, the browser doesn't generate a box for the element; the element is not visible on the screen, and the layout of the page isn't effected by the element. As screen readers are supposed to read the screen, it makes sense that they do not announce content that is hidden with display: none.

Lemon, Gez. Juicy Studio (2007). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Screen Readers Sometimes Ignore display:none

Using display:none does not always hide content from screen readers like JAWS and Window-Eyes, but there is a workaround.

Johansson, Roger. 456 Berea Street (2008). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Unobtrusive and Keyboard Accessible Connected Select Boxes

Any web developer who has created a reasonably complex form is probably aware of the concept of multiple select elements that are connected – choosing something from one select box either makes a new select box appear or changes the options of one that is already visible.

Johansson, Roger. 456 Berea Street (2007). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


User-Defined Style Sheets and Accessibility

How you can set your own stylesheet for greater accessibility; another lecture/essay.

Bartlett, Kynn. HTML Writers Guild (1999). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS

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