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Accessibility is a general term used to describe the degree to which a product (e.g., device, service, environment) is accessible by as many people as possible, and the ventures to produce accessible products and services. Accessibility is often used to focus on people with disabilities and their right of access to entities, often through use of assistive technology.



Cómo Hacer Más Accesibles los Gráficos SVG

SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) es un lenguaje de etiquetado que nos permite la descripción con XML de gráficos vectoriales en dos dimensiones. En este artículo se resume brevemente como los gráficos SVG pueden ser más accesibles siguiendo las directrices del W3C.

Fernandez, Francisco Jesus Martin and Oscar Martin Rodriguez. Nosolousabilidad.com (2002). (Spanish) Design>Accessibility>Graphic Design>Usability


Comprendiendo la Accesibilidad

una completa guía para crear sitios Web, que consigan la conformidad con las normas federales de Estados Unidos para la accesibilidad del contenido Web

Yonaitis, Robert B. HiSoftware (2002). (Spanish) Design>Accessibility>Web Design


Computer-Mediated Communication and Disability Support: Addressing Barriers to Study

The case study reported here formed part of a linear series of studies undertaken as doctoral research at the Institute of Educational Technology of the Open University between 1994 and 1999. It explored ways in which computer-mediated conferencing (one type of computer-mediated communication [CMC]), could address barriers to study encountered by undergraduate distance learners with long-term health problems, identified by a large scale postal survey of volunteers. These problem areas include: difficulty with handwriting, academic and social isolation and fatigue, together with a need for better interactive communication with support agencies. The approach taken was designed to maximise student autonomy in relation to their studies. Thirteen participants were provided with access to the services of an on-line educational counsellor, both by e-mail and in a confidential peer group conference in the environment of a 'Virtual Campus'. The findings suggest that informal contact with the counsellor in the group environment helped to build rapport and develop confidence for these students to approach her by e-mail when more private advice or help was needed.

Debenham, Margaret. TechDis (2002). Design>Web Design>Accessibility


The Concept of Universal Design

The idea that environments can support human function is not new to designers. But, the perception that design can enable one’s abilities and participation in society is something relatively new from a consumer perspective.

Steinfeld, Edward. uiGarden (2008). Design>Usability>Accessibility>Universal Usability


Considering the Color-Blind

Recently, I was surprised to learn that about 8 percent of men and 0.5 percent of women have some form of color blindness. For some Web sites that could translate to 1 in 12 visitors. That's a larger proportion of visitors than some other groups I consider when designing Web sites. The ratio of visitors viewing the Web with only 256 colors or a 640x480 pixel screen is usually less than 5 percent these days. Now include cross-browser support, older browsers, style sheets, and JavaScript in the mix. If you consider those issues when you design Web sites, you should consider your color-blind visitors, as well.

Newman, Chuck. New Architect (2000). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>Color


Considering the User Perspective: A Summary of Design Issues

A table which indicates some accomodations web designers may choose to build into accessible websites.

Bohman, Paul. WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility


Console Accessibility

This white paper is intended to show how the console Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) can be used to programmatically access information about the console and applications running under the console in Windows XP.

Microsoft (2001). Articles>User Interface>Accessibility>Microsoft Windows


Console Accessibility

This paper outlines the requirements for console accessibility in Microsoft Windows XP.

Microsoft (2001). Design>Accessibility>Software


Constructing a POUR Website - Putting People at the Center of the Process

Web developers can create Web sites that are possible for people with disabilities to access, but only with great difficulty. The technical standards are important, but they may be insufficient on their own. Developers need to learn when and how to go beyond the technical standards when necessary.

Bohman, Paul. WebAIM (2005). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility


The Convergence of the Aging Work Force And Accessible Technology

This paper discusses the effects of America’s aging work force on business growth and productivity and illustrates how accessible technology can equip employers and mature workers to face the challenges posed by this demographic trend.

Mosner, Ellen and Craig Spiezle. Microsoft (2004). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>Elderly


Copyright and Persons with Print Disabilities in the Digital Age

The American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) stands squarely in favor of reasonable and prudent technologies to assist in ensuring that copyright holders are fairly compensated for the sale, or other forms of digital access, of the content they publish in digital formats. However,most proposals we have seen to date purporting to establish technologies to prevent illegal copying or publication of copyrighted content simply do not consider, or address in any way, the fair use rights of persons who are blind and visually impaired. We would regard it a serious breach of faith with disabled persons to establish new technologies and copyright provisions which, once again, regard our needs as peripheral and expendable. To this end we offer the following positions on this issue of fundamental importance to this community.

American Foundation for the Blind (2002). Articles>Intellectual Property>Accessibility>Visual


Costs of Fixing an Inaccessible Website

Unfortunately, there is no magic wand which can fix an inaccessible website - prevention is often better than cure. The most effective way to create a usable website, is to make it accessible from the outset to avoid time consuming, costly alterations in the future.

Raspberry Frog (2008). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility


Could Helen Keller Read Your Page?

The 'line-at-a-time' approach of screen-reader software complicates navigation on text lines that contain multiple hyperlinks (such as navigation bars). Thus, in an ideal world, accommodating visually impaired readers would move an author to place each link on its own separate line. But individual lines for each link can make for long scrolling pages, which, in turn, compromises navigation speed for sighted readers.

Sullivan, Terry and Krystyn Manning. All Things Web (1997). Design>Web Design>Accessibility


Create More Accessible UI with Dynamic Annotation

This article discusses dynamic annotation (DA), a feature that allows developers to improve the accessibility of their user interface.

Microsoft (2000). Design>User Interface>Accessibility


Creating a Universal Usability Agenda

How do you keep usability, accessibility, and user experience requirements on track while developing standards? It is part of the very nature of standards to focus on details--and in the process, to sometimes lose sight of the real goals. This is especially true when a standards-making process goes on for a long time, a situation is highly political, or most people are focused on technology issues.

Quesenbery, Whitney. UXmatters (2006). Articles>Usability>Accessibility>Universal Usability


Creating Accessible Cascading Style Sheets

For years, the only way to format HTML in a visually appealing way was to use tables, even though tables were originally created to display tabular data. As the Web evolved and became more sophisticated, designers wanted to do more than just display text, they wanted to emulate printed documents. They wanted to make an artistic statement. There's nothing wrong with that. In fact, tables can be used for layout without ruining the accessibility of a Web site. Yes, it's ok to use tables for layout. Still, you can take your Web design to a higher level by eliminating tables entirely. The way to do this is through CSS (Cascading Style Sheets).

Bohman, Paul. WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>CSS


Creating Accessible Data Tables

This article demonstrates how to code accessible data tables in (X)HTML, enabling visually impaired users who employ assistive technologies to interpret the table data. Two views of a tabular data table are presented and discussed.

Palinkas, Frank M. Opera (2008). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>Standards


Creating Accessible Flash

Macromedia Flash is a vector-based, interactive animation creation program designed to enable the addition of dynamic characters, scenes, interfaces and motion graphics animations to Web sites. Macromedia Flash materials are created using the Flash authoring program, the most recent version of which is Flash MX.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>Flash


Creating Accessible Forms

When we talk about the accessibility of forms, we are usually referring about their accessibility to screen readers and the visually impaired. People with other types of disabilities generally are less affected by 'faulty' forms that are missing some of the HTML accessibility features.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>Forms


Creating Accessible Frames

A frameset is a Web page which defines a collection of at least two other separate Web pages, which are combined in the same visual space. Visual users usually experience framesets as a cohesive entity. They can scan the contents of multiple pages all at once. Those using screen readers cannot quickly scan the contents of multiple pages. All of the content is experienced in a linear fashion, one frame at a time. Frames are not inaccessible to modern screen readers, but they can be disorienting.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility


Creating Accessible Images

Some people think that graphics are bad for accessibility. The truth is that graphics can be of great benefit to the accessibility of a Web page by providing illustrations, icons, animations, or other visual cues that aid comprehension for sighted individuals. Too often we forget that when we design for people with disabilities, we are not designing only for the blind. We must consider disabilities of all types. Graphics can be especially useful to individuals with certain reading disabilities, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, or cognitive disabilities.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility


Creating Accessible JavaScript

JavaScript is available on the Web to allow programming type processes that are not allowed with static HTML. In most cases, JavaScript does not overtly affect accessibility. Most browsers and screen readers are capable of accessing JavaScript items. You should, however, teach that many people cannot or choose not to allow JavaScript within their Web browsers or assistive technologies. Important content or functionality should not rely on JavaScript alone. JavaScript should usually be used to supplement content.

WebAIM (2003). Design>Web Design>Accessibility>DHTML


Creating Accessible Sites in Flash

With the features incorporated into Flash CS4, designers may create fully-accessible online multimedia. This presentation introduces how.

Adobe (2010). Presentations>Multimedia>Accessibility>Flash


Creating Accessible Tables

In practice, tables are perhaps most commonly used for page layout. Layout tables do not have logical headers that can be mapped to information within the table cells.

WebAIM (2005). Design>Web Design>Accessibility


Creating Accessible Tabular Data Tables: A Help Authoring Guide

This Fast Track tutorial demonstrates and employs web standards and accessibility methods for tabular data table creation. It is presented free of charge to the community as a help authoring, technical writing and web design guide.

Palinkas, Frank M. helpware.net (2009). Articles>Web Design>Accessibility>Help



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